• Kadiri Praveen Kumar


Mosman Vet (Vet, 2014)


Vet, M. (2014, 02 14). Retrieved from Not the kind of rock that you want for Valentine's Day..:

Molly' is a 9 year old cat who is indoors and outdoors. She does not use a litter tray, and instead prefers to use the garden outside to toilet.

Molly presented to Mosman Vet for weight loss and for being a little bit fussier with her food. With these general signs, we ran a full blood profile to check her kidney function, sugar levels (to rule out diabetes mellitus) and general health status. All these parameters were within the normal ranges for an older cat and so we then scheduled an abdominal ultrasound. This is where we discovered what was affecting Molly....she had bladder stones! An x-ray was also taken and confirmed that this was indeed the on to find out more about Molly's case and also to find out more about feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) and how it can be treated.

The most common type of bladder stone is struvite and these stones can sometimes be treated medically by feeding a prescription-only dissolution diet. Initially, we had hoped to treat Molly this way however, she then became acutely unwell and so it was in her best interest to perform surgery to physically remove the stones. The picture to the right is one from today. Molly is recovering quite well from her general anaesthetic and surgery. The other picture is of the numerous stones that were removed from her bladder!

What You Should Know About Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

Up to 10% of all cats admitted to veterinary hospitals are affected with FLUTD. The most common finding is irritation and inflammation of the lining of the bladder and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside) associated with the formation of crystals. Crystals form when the urine is too concentrated. Building blocks for various crystal types include magnesium, ammonium, calcium, oxalate, urate, and phosphate. Crystals (most often struvite) may imbed in an inflammatory protein matrix, much as bricks are embedded in mortar.

Causes Although there is no single cause of FLUTD, various risk factors have been identified that predispose cats to the disease.

• urine too alkaline or too acid • obesity • high urine concentrations of magnesium • foods with excess protein Factors that cause high urine levels of magnesium include high magnesium content in the food, infrequent urination caused by a dirty litter tray, and reduced water intake caused by unavailable or poor-quality water and dry food. Factors that contribute to an alkaline urine pH include the size and frequency of meals, the type of food eaten, and bacterial infections of the bladder.

Signs FLUTD is a serious condition that can be fatal if untreated. Therefore it is important to recognise its signs in your cat. Signs include; • prolonged squatting and straining to urinate • more frequent urination • urination outside the litter box • bloody urine • painful abdomen


Your veterinarian will palpate (examination by touching) your cat’s abdomen to see if the bladder is enlarged and painful. Another important part of the physical examination will be an inspection of a male cat’s penis. Obstructions may be apparent, or a drop of bloody urine may be present. Other tests that may need to be performed by your veterinarian include examination of urine with the aid of a microscope to reveal the presence of crystals, urine culture, x-rays, ultrasound and blood tests.

The number of male and female cats affected with FLUTD is equal, but the disease is much more serious in male cats because they have a longer, narrower urethra. The protein matrix/struvite crystal complex or calcium oxalate formations may partially or completely obstruct the urethra in male cats. This obstruction makes urination impossible. As a result, wastes that are normally passed in the urine build up in the cat’s body causing life-threatening changes.



©2018 by Vet Express. Proudly created with B-AIM